Every USCRN observing site is equipped with a standard set of sensors as well as a data logger, a satellite communications transmitter, and appropriate shielding and power infrastructure for making reliable observations. When fully implemented, the network will consist of several hundred instrument suites strategically selected to capture climate trends, variations, and change across the nation. The stations are placed in pristine environments expected to be free of development for many decades. Each station may include the following sensors: Beginning with a pilot project in the Southwest that was completed in , USRCRN stations will be deployed at a km spatial resolution across the United States to provide for the detection of regional climate change signals. Three independent measurements of temperature and precipitation are made at each station, insuring continuity of record and maintenance of well-calibrated and highly accurate observations. A few of the sensors at each site that take these observations include: Stations in Alaska and Hawaii provide network experience and observations in polar and tropical regions. Two stations on the Big Island of Hawaii are also part of the network.
There are routine maintenance visits to the sites and regular calibration of the sensors. Stations are monitored and maintained to high standards and are calibrated on an annual basis. Two stations on the Big Island of Hawaii are also part of the network. A geostationary satellite transmitter then sends the data to NCEI hourly, where they undergo a quality-control check and are placed online. Research effort has focused on continual evaluation of the data, new sensors, and emerging calibration techniques. In addition to temperature and precipitation, these stations also measure solar radiation, surface skin temperature, and surface winds. Stations in Alaska and Hawaii provide network experience and observations in polar and tropical regions. The stations are placed in pristine environments expected to be free of development for many decades. They also include triplicate measurements of soil moisture and soil temperature at five depths, as well as atmospheric relative humidity for most of the contiguous U. Each station may include the following sensors: These stations were designed with climate science in mind. Climate Reference Network station The data logger is also attached to the tower, and it electronically stores five-minute and hourly observations. In other words, three separate sensors measure each of these variables to ensure an accurate and consistent observation. Platinum resistance thermometers to measure air temperature within fan-aspirated shields that keep out the sun and draw in the air An all-weather weighing precipitation gauge with three devices weighing the collection bucket simultaneously right ; a backup tipping bucket gauge also measures precipitation for additional redundancy left A pyranometer to measure incoming solar radiation A three-cup anemometer to measure wind speed at the station height of 1. The entire site design allows for future additions of new sensors on the tower without disrupting the physical site, ensuring the creation of an impeccable record of climate conditions in the United States far into the future. If one sensor fails, there are still two others to back it up without missing a beat until it can be repaired. Air temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture and temperature are all primary variables measured using triple redundancy. How has the climate of the Nation changed over the past 50 years? System design, test, implementation, and associated expenses are being provided by the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service 's Office of Systems Development. It records data with minimal time dependent biases affecting the interpretation of decadal to centennial climate variability and change. The hope is that research based on this data is thrusted to impact near and long term policy and decision plans made by senior government and business leaders. The vision of the USCRN program is to maintain a sustainable high-quality climate observation network that 50 years from now can with the highest degree of confidence answer the question: Three independent measurements of temperature and precipitation are made at each station, insuring continuity of record and maintenance of well-calibrated and highly accurate observations. Some locations, like those that experience high snowfall and snow depth, are given special consideration when placing the instruments to account for those conditions. A few of the sensors at each site that take these observations include: When each site is deployed, all of the sensors are calibrated and put on a maintenance plan that includes routine replacement of aging sensors and annual maintenance visits. Quality Controlled Dataset Access U.
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Hans-Henrik Nordstrøm: NUVOLE ITALIANE
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